Australian Yiddish Journals
In comparison with the smallness of the Jewish population, a relatively large number of Yiddish periodicals have been published in Australia. There were at least twenty published in the twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, one or two continue to be published in Melbourne. Although Yiddish journals are now very few in Australia, there is a renewed interest in the language. It is hoped this will continue to grow. One can never forget that in the Sho'ah, the annihilation of six million Jews meant the virtual disappearance of the Yiddish language and culture from Europe, although refugees have preserved the language and still speak it in the countries to which they fled. One prominent example in Australia was the Melbourne Holocaust survivor Jacob Rosenberg, who wrote poetry in Yiddish. In addition, there are the Yiddish programmes on SBS radio that come to air twice weekly, and klezmer groups and singers of Yiddish such as Fay Sussman and Dahlia Dior continue to delight Australian audiences. In the meantime, the large number of Yiddish journals produced in Australia in the last century bears witness to the richness of the Yiddish culture which must be preserved. A course at Sydney University in Yiddish was introduced in 1997 and ran till the end of 2010, and Monash University now teaches Yiddish.
There have been some twenty or so different Australian Yiddish newspapers, journals or supplements, the earliest of which was one issue Der Yiddishe Pioneer, which appeared in February 1928. The next to be published was: Di Oistralier Leben (Jan 1931-1933) which was incorporated in The Jewish Weekly News after two years. Another was the Gezerd Tribune which ran for only two issues in 1932, the short lived Dos Naie Vort, published in 1937 and four issues of Der Literarisher Journal in 1938. Others include the longest running Yiddish newspaper Di Oistralisher Yiddishe Naes, the Yiddish section of The Australian Jewish News, Melbourne, which ran (but with interruptions) for sixty years from May 1935 until 1995, ceasing with the death of Yasha Sher. For a short time it had been replaced by Di Yiddishe Voch (1934-1935). There was also Tribuna published in June 1942 by the Jewish Council to Combat Fascism and Antisemitism which re-emerged as Vanguard for a short while. Di Yiddishe Voch (1934-1935) was superseded by Di Oistralisher Yiddishe Naes.
Di Sydnier Yiddishe Naes continued to be published as a supplement to its English language counterpart from 1939-1973. Oyfboy ran for twenty six issues from September 1945 till Ja/Feb 1948. Unzer Gedank was the Yiddish section of The Jewish Weekly News from 1947 till 1964 and still appears in Melbourne. The Australian Jewish Post appeared from 1949-Aug 1968 and was a supplement to The Australian Jewish Herald. A journal with the title Problems was published only once in August 1962. A Bulletin of the Bund Organisation in Melbourne existed for a time in the sixties and a further paper was Der Landsman which published nineteen issues between 1964 and 1970. Another paper was Di Sydneyier Yiddish Insel, emerging from Maroubra, which published seventeen volumes from 1965 till 1971. Yet another was The Link which appeared briefly in 1967. Welcare was published in 1973 and The Melbourner Bleter ran from 1975 till 1991 and was the Yiddish section of The Melbourne Chronicle, which concentrated on arts and literature. In addition, Holocaust survivors published Yiddish pages in their journals, such as in Australian Association of Jewish Holocaust Survivors: News Digest , 1983 - Apr 1993 and subsequent newsletters.
Of the twenty or so different Yiddish newspapers, or journal supplements published in Australia in the twentieth century, the earliest, the one issue The Jewish Pioneer, which appeared in February 1928 was a Zionist production. The latest Yiddish supplement, and the longest running,Die Oistralisheh Yiddisheh Nayess, a supplement to the Melbourne based Australian Jewish News ceased publication in 1995 with the death of Yasha Sher. Ten Yiddish journals began publication after World War II.
The dates of Australian Yiddish journals which begin in 1928, a year after the first conference of the Australian Zionist Federation and cease in 1995 include the following:
The Yiddish magazine, Unzer Gedank continues to be published in Melbourne.
Other Yiddish Journals
There were several Bundist magazines in Yiddish. Bono Wiener was the first editor of Unzer Gedank. Melbourne (Bund Organisation) in 1947. It was published by the Melbourne Bund Organisation, a Jewish Socialist party, and printed by E. H. Gibbs. The people behind the paper were the remnants of the once powerful and influential Jewish movement in Poland. A second called Bulletin of the Bund Organisation in Melbourne appears to have been published in 1962, but no copies to date have been recovered. It was also printed by E. H. Gibbs.
Another Bundist publication called Link appeared in Melbourne and lasted from July till September.The editors were David Burstin and Henry Rosenbloom (1967). Articles on socio-political and literary subjects were published in English and Yiddish. Welcare. Melbourne was published by the Australian Jewish Welfare and Relief Society from 1973 and included a short section in Yiddish. At least one yeshiva magazine had a Yiddish section, as for example that from the Yeshiva Gedola in Bondi, which produced Kovetz Haoros Hatmimim v'anash (Torah Essays and Discourses). Bondi. (Yeshiva Gedola) in May 1986 in Yiddish and Hebrew. The journal carried religious articles on evolution, infinity and other subjects, and material from the Lubabitcher Rabbi Shlita.
The Federation of Polish Jews from St Kilda published Der Landsman from 1964-1970. Holocaust survivors added a page in Yiddish to Centre News (1985-1996) and Insight (1982-1988) issued by the Montefiore Home for the Aged in Melbourne. Leftwing groups also published in Yiddish. These included Geserd Tribune, Melbourne, nos 1-2 (Je 1932, Nov 1932) which was published by the Melbourne radical left-wing Gezerd Organisation in 1932, and ran for sixteen pages. Another of their publications was Dos Naie Vort in 1937. The journal represented a second attempt by the Gezerd organisation to publish a Yiddish paper. Like the previous attempt with the Gezerd Tribune, it too was short lived.
The Kadima Centre also produced a magazine: Kadimah News. Elsternwick. (Jewish Cultural Centre and National Library "Kadimah") was begun in July 1972, and was printed by E.H. Gibbs & Sons. It was a newsletter of the Centre's activities, and carried articles on Jewish culture, and was partly in English and Yiddish. There may have been only issue. Sponsored by S. Burstin, R. Butlinski, B. Wajsman, B. Winer, J. Winkler and H. Rosenbaum.
Literary Magazines published in Yiddish included Oyfboy. Melbourne, published monthly from September 1945 to January /February 1948, and running for twenty six issues. The editors were the authors Herz Bergner, Ber Rozen, Victoria, Hans Kimmel, and Abraham Shulman. It was printed by by A. Maller, Excelsior Printing Co., Melbourne and published by L. Fink, "Oifboy" Publishing Co. Some pages were in English as demanded by the law during the war years. A set is owned by the Jewish Museum, Victoria. In Sydney M. Alexander of Maroubra edited a literary monthly, Sydney Yiddish Insel from 1965 till March 1971, which ran for seventeen issues. Again it was printed by E. H Gibbs in Melbourne. Another journal was entitled Problems, and appeared in August 1962 for one issue.
Perhaps surprisingly was the fact that Zionist groups published in Yiddish. These included Jewish Call. Melbourne. (New Zionist Organisation in Australia) which ran for twenty issued from the late 1930s till the early forties. The editors were: L. Levy, and J. Sallick and it was printed by York Press. Half was in Yiddish with title Der Yiden Stat. There were articles by Rabbi Dr Friedman, Rabbi Leib Aisach Falk, N. Levy, Ze'ev Jabotinsky, and other prominent advocates of Zionism. As mentioned, the earliest attempt at a Yiddish newspaper was made by Zionists who produced Der Yiddisher Pioneer in 1928.
Two more journals should be noted, which were produced by the Jewish Labour movement in the 1940s. One was entitled Vanguard. Melbourne. (Poale Zion Movement) and was in Yiddish and English and presented Zionist Labour views. The second was State and Labour. Melbourne (Australian Poale Zion) v 1 no 1 - v 1 no 2 ( Nov 1948 - Feb 1949) and included some photos. It was designed to be a monthly. In the inaugural issue, the editors stated that they ‘would use their best endeavours to acquaint readers in Australia with the striving of the Jewish labour Movement to ensure that the State of Israel would be built on foundations of social justice, economic democracy, the dignity of Labour, and peaceful relations with the Arab world. The first issue had a Yiddish section of ten pages.
Magazines were also produced with a Yiddish section by the younger generation. One such journal was Jewish Youth: Organ of the Melbourne Jewish Youth Council of Jewish Council to Combat Fascism and Anti-Semitism (v.1, no 1-v.2, no 4 (July 1946 - Mar 1947.) Jewish Youth was issued as a monthly in Hebrew, English and Yiddish in the 1940s. Various editors included: Aaron R. Blashki, Y. Birstein, Sonia Rosenberg, A. Millgrom, Judah Leon Waten and M. Kronenberg, It had different subtitle variations such as: Organ of Kadimah Jewish Youth Organisation, and: a monthly in English/Yiddish and Hebrew. Tri-lingual. Volume 2, number 4 was published with the support of the Victorian Jewish Services Association. The magazine featured articles on Jewish culture and news. Several of the stories of Pinchas Goldhar were translated, as well as from other writers of the time.
Although Yiddish journals are now very few in Australia, there is a new interest in the language. It is hoped this will continue to grow. In the meantime, the large harvest of Yiddish journals produced in Australia last century bears witness to the richness of the Yiddish culture which must be preserved.
The publication details of each of these journals are detaliled in:
Marianne Dacy, Periodical Publications from the Australian Jewish Community, Monograph no 2 (Sydney, Archive of Australian Judaica, University of Sydney 1986) and the online versions on this webpage (2nd edition 2002, 6th edition 2008). The preface of the original version was written in collaboration with Professor Alan Crown and is a summary of the history of the Australian Jewish periodical press.
Suzanne Rutland, Seventy Five Years: The History of a Jewish Newspaper (Sydney, Australian Jewish Historical Society, 1970) for a history of the Australian Jewish News. Another reference (but with some factual errors) is: Solomon Stedman, The Jewish Press in Australia, Australian Jewish Historical Society: Journal and Proceedings , 6:1 (Dec 1964) 46-47. Also see: Suzanne Rutland, Edge of the Diaspora: Two Centuries of Jewish Settlement in Australia, 2nd revised edn (Sydney, Brandl & Schlesinger, 1997)322-323. and The Jewish Press, Community and Jewish Publishing in Australia, in A. D. Crown, ed., Noblesse Oblige; Essays in Honour of David Kessler, OBE , (London, Vallentine Mitchell, August 1998), pp. 37-59.
University of Sydney
18th October 2009.